Cell: Structure and Functions | Class 8th

Table of Contents

Exercise Questions

1. Indicate whether the following statements are True (T) or False (F).

(a) Unicellular organisms have one-celled body. (T/F)

(b) Muscle cells are branched. (T/F)

(c) The basic living unit of an organism is an organ. (T/F)

(d) Amoeba has irregular shape. (T/F)



b) False

c) False

d) True

 2. Make a sketch of the human nerve cell. What function do nerve cells perform?Answer:

The main function of the nerve cell is to transmit messages to the brain from receptor organs and vice versa. It has control over the working of different parts of the body.
3. Write short notes on the following:

(a) Cytoplasm:
The cytoplasm is a fluid that contains all the cell organelles such as the Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Golgi bodies, etc. It is present between the nucleus and the plasma membrane. It helps in the exchange of materials between cell organelles. It is made up of eighty percent water and is usually clear and colourless.
(b) The nucleus of a cell:The Nucleus is a double-membrane bound cell organelle present in eukaryotic cells. It contains the DNA, the genetic material. It is the command centre of the cell and is spherical in shape.

4. Which part of the cell contains organelles?
Various cell organelles are present in the cytoplasm. It is a clear and colorless fluid that contains organelles like Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Golgi bodies.

5. Make sketches of animal and plant cells. State three differences between them.

Plant cellAnimal cell
They are large in sizeThey are smaller than plant cells
The cell wall is presentThe cell wall is absent
Vacuoles are largeVacuoles are small
Plastids could be seenExcept for Euglena, Plastids could not be seen in animal cells.

6. State the difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

Most of them are unicellularMost of them are multicellular
There is no nuclear membrane. So,the nucleus is poorly defined.There is a nuclear membrane. So, the nucleus is well defined.
Not all cell organelles are presentAll the cell organelles are present.
Nucleolus is absentNucleolus is present
Eg: Blue-green algae, BacteriaEg: Plant, Animal cells and Fungi.

7. Where are chromosomes found in a cell? State their function.

Answer: Chromosomes are thread-like structures present in the nucleus that carry genes. All the necessary information required for the transfer of characteristics from the parents to the offspring are stored in the genes. Inheritance of characteristics is possible only because of chromosomes.

8. ‘Cells are the basic structural units of living organisms’. Explain.
Answer: Various components of plants and animals are constituted by cells. It is the smallest unit of life and is capable of all living functions. They are the building blocks of life. That is the reason why cells are referred to as ‘the basic structural and functional blocks of life’.
Cells exist in various shapes and sizes and perform a wide range of activities.

9. Explain why chloroplasts are found only in plant cells.
Answer: Chloroplasts are plastids required for the food making process, called photosynthesis, and thus they are only present in plant cells.

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